Time-tested in the lab, in the gym, and on thefield of competition, beta-alanine is the de facto choice for athletes of allkinds to stay stronger and last longer -- lifting more weight for more reps allthe while delaying the onset of fatigue. Beta alanine helps blunt theaccumulation of H+ ions (which left unchecked inhibit muscle contractions),enabling you to bang out more reps before requiring rest.*
Derived from L-arginine, agmatine is a uniquemolecule that acts as both a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator as well as anitric oxide-support agent. More specifically, agmatine can help reduce theperception of pain (enabling you to push harder during training) and offerneuroprotection against glutamate toxicity. Agmatine also supports stronger,longer-lasting pumps by stimulating eNOS (the enzyme that catalyzes NOproduction) as well as inhibits arginase -- the enzyme that breaks downarginine (the “fuel” your body uses to produce nitric oxide).*
Tyrosine is an amino acid used to produce dopamine -- a critical neurotransmitterinvolved in mood, motivation, motor control and exercise performance. It’s alsoinvolved in the production of both T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine)thyroid hormones, which affect metabolism. Intense training can depletedopamine levels, leading to an increase in serotonin, which can accelerate theonset of fatigue. Supplementing with tyrosine promotes greater dopamineconcentrations and also offers anti-stress/anti-fatigue benefits.*
Developed by Nutrition21, Nitrosigine is afast-acting, premium NO booster that contains a highly bioavailable form ofarginine, making it superior to other arginine supplements (e.g. L-Arginine,AAKG, etc.). Groundbreaking research conducted at the University of Arkansasdemonstrated that 1,500mg Nitrosigine was as effective as 8,000mg of CitrullineMalate.*
In addition to increasing nitric oxide,vasodilation and blood flow, which delivers more powerful pumps and increasedvascularity, Nitrosigine also improves focus and helps reduce biomarkers ofmuscle fatigue following exercise.*
Choline is an essential nutrient for optimalCNS development and function, largely in part due to its role in synthesizing acetylcholine -- a highly-importantneurotransmitter involved in learning, memory, focus, and the mind-muscle connection. Alpha GPC isamong the most effective choline supplements on the market, readily crossingthe blood-brain barrier and supporting acetylcholine production. Human studieshave found that Alpha GPC supplementation before training can help increasemaximum velocity and maximum power output as well as improve reaction time andvertical jump power.*
Caffeine is the consummate pre workoutstimulant, rigorously investigated by researchers and utilized by athletes andgym rats around the globe to increase energy, boost focus, and powerperformance during tough workouts. In addition to antagonizing adenosine,caffeine also stimulates the release of dopamine as well as upregulatesdopamine receptor availability and affinity. Supplementing with caffeine beforeexercise can improve strength, endurance, and reaction time while delaying theonset of fatigue.*
VILLAIN includes a precise blend offast-acting and extended-release caffeine to power you during and after yourworkout, thus avoiding the dreaded “crash” common to most pre workoutsupplements.*
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the cellularcurrency of energy production. Cells have limited stores of it, after whichother substrates (creatine, glucose, fatty acids) must be utilized to continuepowering energy production (and thus athletic performance). Developed byFutureCeuticals, elevATP is a game-changing blend of ancient peat and appleextracts shown to increase endogenouslevels ATP in the body as well as improve strength, power, and performance inresistance-trained athletes. VILLAIN includes elevATP with Nitrosigine andbeta-alanine, specifically, to offer athletes multiple means by which to liftmore weight, train harder, and make greater gains!
Kelp is an excellent source of many criticalmicronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, iron, and iodine. Deficienciesin iodine can lead to thyroid deficiency, impairing metabolism and leading tofat gain. Beyond supporting thyroid health, iodine also functions as a potentscavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can enhance exerciseperformance.*
A powerful non-stimulant focus-enhancer,NeuroFactor is a proprietary extract of coffee fruit (different from coffeebeans) that is rich in numerous polyphenols which have been found to boostlevels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) up to 143% from baseline andkeep them elevated for two hours! BDNF is an important brain protein thatimpacts the growth, development and maintenance of neurons (brain cells), whichsupports greater focus, memory, and concentration.*
Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Stout JR, Hoffman JR, Wilborn CD, Sale C, Kreider RB, Jäger R, Earnest CP, Bannock L, Campbell B, Kalman D, Ziegenfuss TN, Antonio J. International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Jul 15;12:30. doi: 10.1186/s12970-015-0090-y. PMID: 26175657; PMCID: PMC4501114.
Mun CH, Lee WT, Park KA, Lee JE. Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by agmatine after transient global cerebral ischemia in rat brain. Anat Cell Biol. 2010 Sep;43(3):230-40. doi: 10.5115/acb.2010.43.3.230. Epub 2010 Sep 30. PMID: 21212863; PMCID: PMC3015041.
Rafi, H., Rafiq, H. & Farhan, M. Inhibition of NMDA receptors by agmatine is followed by GABA/glutamatebalance in benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Beni-Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci 10, 43 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s43088-021-00125-8
Mathar D, Erfanian Abdoust M, Marrenbach T, Tuzsus D, Peters J. The catecholamine precursor Tyrosine reduces autonomic arousal and decreases decision thresholds in reinforcement learning and temporal discounting. PLoS Comput Biol. 2022 Dec 22;18(12):e1010785. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1010785. PMID: 36548401; PMCID: PMC9822114.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Military Nutrition Research; Marriott BM, editor. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1994. 15, Tyrosine and Stress: Human and Animal Studies. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209061/
Rogers JM, Gills J, Gray M. Acute effects of Nitrosigine® and citrulline malate on vasodilation in young adults. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020;17(1):12. Published 2020 Feb 24. doi:10.1186/s12970-020-00343-y
Rood-Ojalvo S, Sandler D, Veledar E, et al. The benefits of inositol-stabilized arginine silicate as a workout ingredient. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:P14. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-12-S1-P14.
Harvey et. al. The effects of inositol-stabilized arginine silicate on cognitive function. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2015;34(6):544.
Kansakar U, Trimarco V, Mone P, Varzideh F, Lombardi A, Santulli G. Choline supplements: An update. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2023 Mar 7;14:1148166. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1148166. PMID: 36950691; PMCID: PMC10025538.
Guest NS, VanDusseldorp TA, Nelson MT, Grgic J, Schoenfeld BJ, Jenkins NDM, Arent SM, Antonio J, Stout JR, Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Goldstein ER, Kalman DS, Campbell BI. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2021 Jan 2;18(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s12970-020-00383-4. PMID: 33388079; PMCID: PMC7777221.
Sorrenti S, Baldini E, Pironi D, Lauro A, D'Orazi V, Tartaglia F, Tripodi D, Lori E, Gagliardi F, Praticò M, Illuminati G, D'Andrea V, Palumbo P, Ulisse S. Iodine: Its Role in Thyroid Hormone Biosynthesis and Beyond. Nutrients. 2021 Dec 14;13(12):4469. doi: 10.3390/nu13124469. PMID: 34960019; PMCID: PMC8709459.